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Penyebaran Kristen di Skandinavia

Salib Kristen di batu rune Frösö, melambangkan Kristenisasi Jämtland.

Kristenisasi Skandinavia berlangsung dari abad ke-8 hingga abad ke-12. Keuskupan Agung didirikan di Denmark pada tahun 1104, di Norwegia pada tahun 1154, dan di Swedia pada tahun 1164. Namun, orang Sami baru berhasil dikristenkan pada abad ke-18.[1]

Walaupun Skandinavia pada akhirnya menjadi Kristen, butuh waktu yang cukup lama untuk membuat agama ini mengakar di masyarakat.[2][3] Tradisi lama Skandinavia bertentangan dengan gagasan-gagasan baru yang asing, seperti dosa asal, inkarnasi, dan trinitas. Situs-situs kuburan di pulau Lovön, dekat Stockholm, menunjukkan bahwa proses kristenisasi memakan waktu paling tidak 150–200 tahun[4] (perlu dicatat bahwa wilayah tersebut merupakan wilayah pusat Kerajaan Swedia). Inskripsi rune dari abad ke-13 di kota pedagang Bergen di Norwegia tidak menunjukkan pengaruh Kristen dan salah satu di antaranya masih mengacu kepada Valkyrie.[5]

Gambar "Kristus menang" sering kali muncul dalam seni-seni Jermanik, sehingga para ilmuwan menduga bahwa misionaris-misionaris Kristen menyajikan Kristus sebagai "figur kekuatan dan keberuntungan" dan kemungkinan Kitab Wahyu (yang menggambarkan kemenangan Kristus atas setan) memainkan peran penting dalam proses kristenisasi orang Viking.[6]

Catatan kaki

  1. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette, A history of expansion of Christianity. Vol 2. The thousand years of uncertainty: AD 500-AD 1500 (1938) pp 106-43.
  2. ^ Elena Melnikova, "How Christian Were Viking Christians?." Ruthenica, Suppl. 4 (2011) pp 90-107
  3. ^ Schön 2004, 170
  4. ^ Schön 2004, 172
  5. ^ Schön 2004, 173
  6. ^ Sanmark 2004: 97

Daftar pustaka

  • Berend, Nora. Christianization and the Rise of Christian Monarchy: Scandinavia, Central Europe and Rus' c. 900-1200 (2010).
  • Katajala-Peltomaa, Sari. "Fatherhood, Masculinity and Lived Religion in Late-Medieval Sweden." Scandinavian Journal of History 38.2 (2013): 223-244.
  • Latourette, Kenneth Scott. A history of expansion of Christianity. Vol 2. The thousand years of uncertainty: AD 500-AD 1500 (1938) pp 106–43.
  • Latourette, Kenneth Scott.Christianity in a Revolutionary Age. A History of Christianity in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, Vol. II: The Nineteenth Century in Europe, the Protestant and Eastern Churches (1959): pp 131–96.
  • Latourette, Kenneth Scott. Christianity in a Revolutionary Age. A History of Christianity in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, Vol. IV: The Twentirth Century in Europe, the Roman Catholic, Protestant and Eastern Churches. (1961): 310-36
  • Melnikova, Elena. "How Christian Were Viking Christians?." Ruthenica, Suppl. 4 (2011) (2011) . pp 90–107; online; also online
  • Meylan, Nicolas. "Mana in the North: Power and Religion in Medieval Scandinavian Historiography," History of Religions (Nov 2016) 56#2 149-166. DOI: 10.1086/688215 online
  • Sanmark, Alexandra: Power and conversion: a comparative study of Christianization in Scandinavia; Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University, Occasional papers in archaeology: 34; ISBN 91-506-1739-7 Also: Ph. D. Thesis, 2002 London, University College pdf bibliography pp 297–317.
  • Winroth, Anders. The conversion of Scandinavia: Vikings, merchants, and missionaries in the remaking of Northern Europe (Yale UP, 2012).
  • Hoftun, Oddgeir (2008). Kristningsprosessens og herskermaktens ikonografi i nordisk middelalder, Oslo: Solum forlag. ISBN 978-82-560-1619-8 (Norwegia)
  • Kaufhold, Martin (2001), Europas Norden im Mittelalter, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft ISBN 3-89678-418-8 (Jerman)
  • Larsson, M. G. (2002). Götarnas riken. Upptäcksfärder till Sveriges enande. Atlantis, Stockholm. ISBN 91-7486-641-9. (Swedia)
  • Schön, Ebbe. (2004). Asa-Tors hammare, Gudar och jättar i tro och tradition. Fält & Hässler, Värnamo. ISBN 91-89660-41-2 (Swedia)

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