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Gospel of John

John 18:31–33 on Papyrus 52 (recto; c. AD 150).

The Gospel of John[a] (Ancient Greek: Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ἰωάννην, romanizedEuangélion katà Iōánnēn) is the fourth of the New Testament's four canonical gospels. It contains a highly schematic account of the ministry of Jesus, with seven "signs" culminating in the raising of Lazarus (foreshadowing the resurrection of Jesus) and seven "I am" discourses (concerned with issues of the church–synagogue debate at the time of composition)[3] culminating in Thomas's proclamation of the risen Jesus as "my Lord and my God".[4] The gospel's concluding verses set out its purpose, "that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name."[5][6]

John reached its final form around AD 90–110,[7] although it contains signs of origins dating back to AD 70 and possibly even earlier.[8] Like the three other gospels, it is anonymous, although it identifies an unnamed "disciple whom Jesus loved" as the source of its traditions.[9][10] It most likely arose within a "Johannine community",[11][12] and – as it is closely related in style and content to the three Johannine epistles – most scholars treat the four books, along with the Book of Revelation, as a single corpus of Johannine literature, albeit not by the same author.[13]



The Gospel of John, like all the gospels, is anonymous.[14] John 21:22[15] references a disciple whom Jesus loved and John 21:24–25[16] says: "This is the disciple who is testifying to these things and has written them, and we know that his testimony is true".[11] Early Christian tradition, first found in Irenaeus (c. 130 – c. 202 AD), identified this disciple with John the Apostle, but most scholars have abandoned this hypothesis or hold it only tenuously;[17] there are multiple reasons for this conclusion, including, for example, the fact that the gospel is written in good Greek and displays sophisticated theology, and is therefore unlikely to have been the work of a simple fisherman.[18] Rather, these verses imply that the core of the gospel relies on the testimony (perhaps written) of the "disciple who is testifying", as collected, preserved, and reshaped by a community of followers (the "we" of the passage), and that a single follower (the "I") rearranged this material and perhaps added the final chapter and other passages to produce the final gospel.[11] Most scholars estimate the final form of the text to be around AD 90–110.[7] Given its complex history there may have been more than one place of composition, and while the author was familiar with Jewish customs and traditions, their frequent clarification of these implies that they wrote for a mixed Jewish/Gentile or Jewish context outside Palestine.[citation needed]

The author may have drawn on a "signs source" (a collection of miracles) for chapters 1–12, a "passion source" for the story of Jesus's arrest and crucifixion, and a "sayings source" for the discourses, but these hypotheses are much debated.[19] The author seems to have known some version of Mark and Luke, as John shares with them some vocabulary and clusters of incidents arranged in the same order,[20][21] but key terms from those gospels are absent or nearly so, implying that if the author did know them they felt free to write independently.[21] The Hebrew scriptures were an important source,[22] with 14 direct quotations (versus 27 in Mark, 54 in Matthew, 24 in Luke), and their influence is vastly increased when allusions and echoes are included,[23] but the majority of John's direct quotations do not agree exactly with any known version of the Jewish scriptures.[24] Recent arguments by Richard Bauckham and others that John preserves eyewitness testimony have not won general acceptance.[25][26]

Setting: the Johannine community debate

For much of the 20th century, scholars interpreted the Gospel of John within the paradigm of a hypothetical "Johannine community",[27] meaning that it was held to have sprung from a late-1st-century Christian community excommunicated from the Jewish synagogue (probably meaning the Jewish community)[28] on account of its belief in Jesus as the promised messiah.[29] This interpretation, which saw the community as essentially sectarian and outside the mainstream of early Christianity, has been increasingly challenged in the first decades of the 21st century,[30] and there is currently considerable debate over the gospel's social, religious and historical context.[31] Nevertheless, the Johannine literature as a whole (made up of the gospel, the three Johannine epistles, and Revelation), points to a community holding itself distinct from the Jewish culture from which it arose while cultivating an intense devotion to Jesus as the definitive revelation of a God with whom they were in close contact through the Paraclete.[32]

Structure and content

Jesus giving the Farewell Discourse to his 11 remaining disciples, from the Maestà of Duccio, 1308–1311

The majority of scholars see four sections in the Gospel of John: a prologue (1:1–18); an account of the ministry, often called the "Book of Signs" (1:19–12:50); the account of Jesus's final night with his disciples and the passion and resurrection, sometimes called the Book of Glory[33] or Book of Exaltation (13:1–20:31);[34] and a conclusion (20:30–31); to these is added an epilogue that most scholars believe was not part of the original text (Chapter 21).[33] Disagreement does exist; some scholars, including Bauckham, argue that John 21 was part of the original work.[35]

  • The prologue informs readers of the true identity of Jesus, the Word of God through whom the world was created and who took on human form;[36] he came to the Jews and the Jews rejected him, but "to all who received him (the circle of Christian believers), who believed in his name, he gave power to become children of God."[37]
  • Book of Signs (ministry of Jesus): Jesus calls his disciples and begins his earthly ministry.[38] He travels from place to place informing his hearers about God the Father in long discourses, offering eternal life to all who will believe, and performing miracles that prove the authenticity of his teachings, which creates tensions with the religious authorities (manifested as early as 5:17–18), who decide he must be eliminated.[38][39]
  • The Book of Glory tells of Jesus's return to his heavenly father: it tells how he prepares his disciples for their lives without his physical presence and his prayer for himself and for them, followed by his betrayal, arrest, trial, crucifixion and post-resurrection appearances.[39]
  • The conclusion sets out the purpose of the gospel, which is "that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name."[5]
  • Chapter 21, the addendum, tells of Jesus's post-resurrection appearances in Galilee, the miraculous catch of fish, the prophecy of the crucifixion of Peter, and the fate of the Beloved Disciple.[5]

The structure is highly schematic: there are seven "signs" culminating in the raising of Lazarus (foreshadowing the resurrection of Jesus), and seven "I am" sayings and discourses, culminating in Thomas's proclamation of the risen Jesus as "my Lord and my God" (the same title, dominus et deus, claimed by the Emperor Domitian, an indication of the date of composition).[4]


The Rylands Papyrus is the oldest known New Testament fragment, dated to about 125–175 AD.[40]


Scholars agree that while the Gospel of John clearly regards Jesus as divine, it just as clearly subordinates him to the one God.[41] According to James Dunn, this Christology does not describe a subordinationist relation but rather the authority and validity of the Son's "revelation" of the Father, the continuity between the Father and the Son. Dunn sees this as intended to serve the Logos Christology,[42] while others (e.g., Andrew Loke) see it as connected to John's incarnation theme.[43] The idea of the Trinity developed only slowly through the merger of Hebrew monotheism and the idea of the messiah, Greek ideas of the relationship between God, the world, and the mediating Saviour, and the Egyptian concept of the three-part divinity.[44] But while the developed doctrine of the Trinity is not explicit in the books that constitute the New Testament, the New Testament possesses a triadic understanding of God[45] and contains a number of Trinitarian formulas.[46][47] John's "high Christology" depicts Jesus as divine and preexistent, defends him against Jewish claims that he was "making himself equal to God",[48][49] and talks openly about his divine role and echoing Yahweh's "I Am that I Am" with seven "I Am" declarations of his own.[50][b] At the same time there is a stress like that in Luke on the physical continuity of Jesus's resurrected body, as Jesus tells Thomas: "Put your finger here; see my hands. Reach out your hand and put it into my side. Stop doubting and believe."[58][59]


In the prologue, the gospel identifies Jesus as the Logos or Word. In Ancient Greek philosophy, the term logos meant the principle of cosmic reason.[60] In this sense, it was similar to the Hebrew concept of Wisdom, God's companion and intimate helper in creation.[61] The Hellenistic Jewish philosopher Philo merged these two themes when he described the Logos as God's creator of and mediator with the material world. According to Stephen Harris, the gospel adapted Philo's description of the Logos, applying it to Jesus, the incarnation of the Logos.[62]

Another possibility is that the title logos is based on the concept of the divine Word found in the Targums (Aramaic translation/interpretations recited in the synagogue after the reading of the Hebrew Scriptures). In the Targums (which all postdate the first century but which give evidence of preserving early material), the concept of the divine Word was used in a manner similar to Philo, namely, for God's interaction with the world (starting from creation) and especially with his people. Israel, for example, was saved from Egypt by action of "the Word of the LORD", and both Philo and the Targums envision the Word as manifested between the cherubim and the Holy of Holies.[63]


The portrayal of Jesus's death in John is unique among the gospels. It does not appear to rely on the kinds of atonement theology indicative of vicarious sacrifice[64] but rather presents Jesus's death as his glorification and return to the Father. Likewise, the Synoptic Gospels' three "passion predictions"[65] are replaced by three instances of Jesus explaining how he will be exalted or "lifted up".[66] The verb for "lifted up" (Ancient Greek: ὑψωθῆναι, hypsōthēnai) reflects the double entendre at work in John's theology of the cross, for Jesus is both physically elevated from the earth at the crucifixion but also, at the same time, exalted and glorified.[67]


Scholars disagree on whether and how frequently John refers to sacraments, but current scholarly opinion is that there are very few such possible references, and that if they exist they are limited to baptism and the Eucharist.[68] In fact, there is no institution of the Eucharist in John's account of the Last Supper (it is replaced by Jesus washing the feet of his disciples), and no New Testament text that unambiguously links baptism with rebirth.[69]


Compared to the synoptic gospels, John is markedly individualistic, in the sense that it places emphasis more on the individual's relation to Jesus than on the corporate nature of the Church.[70][71] This is largely accomplished through the consistently singular grammatical structure of various aphoristic sayings of Jesus.[70][c] Emphasis on believers coming into a new group upon their conversion is conspicuously absent from John,[70] and there is a theme of "personal coinherence", that is, the intimate personal relationship between the believer and Jesus in which the believer "abides" in Jesus and Jesus in the believer.[71][70][d] John's individualistic tendencies could give rise to a realized eschatology achieved on the level of the individual believer, but this realized eschatology is not to replace "orthodox", futurist eschatological expectations, but to be "only [their] correlative".[72]

John the Baptist

John's account of John the Baptist is different from that of the synoptic gospels. In this gospel, John is not called "the Baptist."[73] John the Baptist's ministry overlaps with that of Jesus; his baptism of Jesus is not explicitly mentioned, but his witness to Jesus is unambiguous.[73] The evangelist almost certainly knew the story of John's baptism of Jesus, and makes a vital theological use of it.[74] He subordinates John to Jesus, perhaps in response to members of John's sect who regarded the Jesus movement as an offshoot of theirs.[75]

In the Gospel of John, Jesus and his disciples go to Judea early in Jesus's ministry before John the Baptist was imprisoned and executed by Herod Antipas. He leads a ministry of baptism larger than John's own. The Jesus Seminar rated this account as black, containing no historically accurate information.[76] According to the biblical historians at the Jesus Seminar, John likely had a larger presence in the public mind than Jesus.[77]


In the first half of the 20th century, many scholars, especially Rudolph Bultmann, argued that the Gospel of John has elements in common with Gnosticism.[75] Christian Gnosticism did not fully develop until the mid-2nd century, and so 2nd-century Proto-Orthodox Christians concentrated much effort in examining and refuting it.[78] To say the Gospel of John contained elements of Gnosticism is to assume that Gnosticism had developed to a level that required the author to respond to it.[79] Bultmann, for example, argued that the opening theme of the Gospel of John, the preexisting Logos, along with John's duality of light versus darkness, were originally Gnostic themes that John adopted. Other scholars (e.g., Raymond E. Brown) have argued that the preexisting Logos theme arises from the more ancient Jewish writings in the eighth chapter of the Book of Proverbs, and was fully developed as a theme in Hellenistic Judaism by Philo Judaeus.[80] The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran verified the Jewish nature of these concepts.[81] April DeConick suggested reading John 8:56 in support of a Gnostic theology,[82] but recent scholarship has cast doubt on her reading.[83]

Gnostics read John but interpreted it differently from non-Gnostics.[84] Gnosticism taught that salvation came from gnosis, secret knowledge, and Gnostics saw Jesus as not a savior but a revealer of knowledge.[85] The gospel teaches that salvation can be achieved only through revealed wisdom, specifically belief in (literally belief into) Jesus.[86] John's picture of a supernatural savior who promised to return to take those who believed in him to a heavenly dwelling could be fitted into Gnostic views.[87] It has been suggested that similarities between the Gospel of John and Gnosticism may spring from common roots in Jewish Apocalyptic literature.[88]

Comparison with other writings

A Syriac Christian rendition of St. John the Evangelist, from the Rabbula Gospels.

Synoptic gospels and Pauline literature

The Gospel of John is significantly different from the synoptic gospels in the selection of its material, its theological emphasis, its chronology, and literary style, with some of its discrepancies amounting to contradictions.[89] The following are some examples of their differences in just one area, that of the material they include in their narratives:[90]

Material unique to the synoptic gospels Material unique to the fourth gospel
Narrative parables Symbolic discourses
Logia and Chreia Dialogues and Monologues
Messianic Secret Overt messianism
Sadducees, elders, lawyers "The Jews"
Lord's Supper Washing of the Feet
Gospel of the Kingdom Spiritual rebirth
Consistent eschatology of Olivet Discourse Realized eschatology of Farewell Discourse
John baptizing Jesus John witnessing Jesus
Exorcism of demons Raising of Lazarus
Hades and Gehenna No concept or mention of hell
Nativity of Jesus "Hymn to the Word" prologue
Genealogy of Jesus "The only-begotten god"
Temptation of Jesus Lamb of God
Sermon on the Mount Seven "I Am" declarations
Transfiguration of Jesus Promise of the Paraclete
Ascension of Jesus Doubting Thomas

In the Synoptics, the ministry of Jesus takes a single year, but in John it takes three, as evidenced by references to three Passovers. Events are not all in the same order: the date of the crucifixion is different, as is the time of Jesus' anointing in Bethany and the cleansing of the Temple, which occurs in the beginning of Jesus' ministry rather than near its end.[91]

Many incidents from John, such as the wedding in Cana, the encounter of Jesus with the Samaritan woman at the well, and the raising of Lazarus, are not paralleled in the synoptics, and most scholars believe the author drew these from an independent source called the "signs gospel", the speeches of Jesus from a second "discourse" source,[92][21] and the prologue from an early hymn.[93] The gospel makes extensive use of the Jewish scriptures:[92] John quotes from them directly, references important figures from them, and uses narratives from them as the basis for several of the discourses. The author was also familiar with non-Jewish sources: the Logos of the prologue (the Word that is with God from the beginning of creation), for example, was derived from both the Jewish concept of Lady Wisdom and from the Greek philosophers, John 6 alludes not only to the exodus but also to Greco-Roman mystery cults, and John 4 alludes to Samaritan messianic beliefs.[94]

John lacks scenes from the Synoptics such as Jesus's baptism,[95] the calling of the Twelve, exorcisms, parables, and the Transfiguration. Conversely, it includes scenes not found in the Synoptics, including Jesus turning water into wine at the wedding at Cana, the resurrection of Lazarus, Jesus washing the feet of his disciples, and multiple visits to Jerusalem.[91]

In the fourth gospel, Jesus's mother Mary is mentioned in three passages but not named.[96][97] John does assert that Jesus was known as the "son of Joseph" in 6:42.[98] For John, Jesus's town of origin is irrelevant, for he comes from beyond this world, from God the Father.[99]

While John makes no direct mention of Jesus's baptism,[95][91] he does quote John the Baptist's description of the descent of the Holy Spirit as a dove, as happens at Jesus's baptism in the Synoptics.[100][101] Major synoptic speeches of Jesus are absent, including the Sermon on the Mount and the Olivet Discourse,[102] and the exorcisms of demons are not mentioned.[95][103] John does not list the Twelve Disciples and names at least one disciple, Nathanael, whose name is not found in the Synoptics. Thomas is given a personality beyond a mere name, described as "Doubting Thomas".[104]

Jesus is identified with the Word ("Logos"), and the Word is identified with theos ("god" in Greek);[105] the Synoptics make no such identification.[106] In Mark, Jesus urges his disciples to keep his divinity secret, but in John he is very open in discussing it, even calling himself "I AM", the title God gives himself in Exodus at his self-revelation to Moses. In the Synoptics, the chief theme is the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Heaven (the latter specifically in Matthew), while John's theme is Jesus as the source of eternal life, and the Kingdom is only mentioned twice.[91][103] In contrast to the synoptic expectation of the Kingdom (using the term parousia, meaning "coming"), John presents a more individualistic, realized eschatology.[107][e]

In the Synoptics, quotations of Jesus are usually in the form of short, pithy sayings; in John, longer quotations are often given. The vocabulary is also different, and filled with theological import: in John, Jesus does not work "miracles", but "signs" that unveil his divine identity.[91] Most scholars consider John not to contain any parables. Rather, it contains metaphorical stories or allegories, such as those of the Good Shepherd and the True Vine, in which each element corresponds to a specific person, group, or thing. Other scholars consider stories like the childbearing woman[109] or the dying grain[110] to be parables.[f]

According to the Synoptics, Jesus's arrest was a reaction to the cleansing of the temple; according to John, it was triggered by the raising of Lazarus.[91] The Pharisees, portrayed as more uniformly legalistic and opposed to Jesus in the synoptic gospels, are portrayed as sharply divided; they frequently debate. Some, such as Nicodemus, even go so far as to be at least partially sympathetic to Jesus. This is believed to be a more accurate historical depiction of the Pharisees, who made debate one of the tenets of their belief system.[111]

In place of the communal emphasis of the Pauline literature, John stresses the personal relationship of the individual to God.[70]

Johannine literature

The Gospel of John and the three Johannine epistles exhibit strong resemblances in theology and style; the Book of Revelation has also been traditionally linked with these, but differs from the gospel and letters in style and even theology.[112] The letters were written later than the gospel, and while the gospel reflects the break between the Johannine Christians and the Jewish synagogue, in the letters the Johannine community itself is disintegrating ("They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would have continued with us; but they went out..." - 1 John 2:19).[113] This secession was over Christology, the "knowledge of Christ", or more accurately the understanding of Christ's nature, for the ones who "went out" hesitated to identify Jesus with Christ, minimising the significance of the earthly ministry and denying the salvific importance of Jesus's death on the cross.[114] The epistles argue against this view, stressing the eternal existence of the Son of God, the salvific nature of his life and death, and the other elements of the gospel's "high" Christology.[114]

Historical reliability

Jesus's teachings in the Synoptics greatly differ from those in John. Since the 19th century, scholars have almost unanimously accepted that the Johannine discourses are less likely to be historical than the synoptic parables, and were likely written for theological purposes.[115] Nevertheless, they generally agree that John is not without historical value. Some potential points of value include early provenance for some Johannine material, topographical references for Jerusalem and Judea, Jesus's crucifixion occurring prior to the Feast of Unleavened Bread, and his arrest in the garden occurring after the accompanying deliberation of Jewish authorities.[116][117][118]

Recent scholarship has argued for a more favourable reappraisal of the historical value of the Gospel of John and its importance for the reconstruction of the historical Jesus, based on recent archaeological and literary studies.[119][120]


Bede translating the Gospel of John on his deathbed, by James Doyle Penrose, 1902. Depicts the Venerable Bede as an elderly man with a long, white beard, sitting in a darkened room and dictating his translation of the Bible, as a younger scribe, sitting across from him, writes down his words. Two monks, standing together in the corner of the room, look on.
Bede translating the Gospel of John on his deathbed, by James Doyle Penrose, 1902

The gospel has been depicted in live narrations and dramatized in productions, skits, plays, and Passion Plays, as well as in film. The most recent such portrayal is the 2014 film The Gospel of John, directed by David Batty and narrated by David Harewood and Brian Cox, with Selva Rasalingam as Jesus.[needs update] The 2003 film The Gospel of John was directed by Philip Saville and narrated by Christopher Plummer, with Henry Ian Cusick as Jesus.

Parts of the gospel have been set to music. One such setting is Steve Warner's power anthem "Come and See", written for the 20th anniversary of the Alliance for Catholic Education and including lyrical fragments taken from the Book of Signs. Additionally, some composers have made settings of the Passion as portrayed in the gospel, most notably Johann Sebastian Bach's St John Passion, although some of its verses are from Matthew.

See also


  1. ^ The book is sometimes called the Gospel according to John, or simply John[1] (which is also its most common form of abbreviation).[2]
  2. ^ The declarations are:
  3. ^ Bauckham 2015a contrasts John's consistent use of the third person singular ("The one who..."; "If anyone..."; "Everyone who..."; "Whoever..."; "No one...") with the alternative third person plural constructions the author could have used instead ("Those who..."; "All those who..."; etc.). He also notes that the sole exception occurs in the prologue, serving a narrative purpose, whereas the later aphorisms serve a "paraenetic function".
  4. ^ See John 6:56, 10:14–15, 10:38, and 14:10, 17, 20, and 23.
  5. ^ Realized eschatology is a Christian eschatological theory popularized by C. H. Dodd (1884–1973). It holds that the eschatological passages in the New Testament do not refer to future events, but instead to the ministry of Jesus and his lasting legacy.[108] In other words, it holds that Christian eschatological expectations have already been realized or fulfilled.
  6. ^ See Zimmermann 2015, pp. 333–60.



  1. ^ ESV Pew Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway. 2018. p. 886. ISBN 978-1-4335-6343-0. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021.
  2. ^ "Bible Book Abbreviations". Logos Bible Software. Archived from the original on 21 April 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  3. ^ Lindars 1990, p. 53.
  4. ^ a b Witherington 2004, p. 83.
  5. ^ a b c Edwards 2015, p. 171.
  6. ^ Burkett 2002, p. 215.
  7. ^ a b Lincoln 2005, p. 18.
  8. ^ Hendricks 2007, p. 147.
  9. ^ Reddish 2011, pp. 13.
  10. ^ Burkett 2002, p. 214.
  11. ^ a b c Reddish 2011, p. 41.
  12. ^ Bynum 2012, p. 15.
  13. ^ Harris 2006, p. 479.
  14. ^ O'Day 1998, p. 381.
  15. ^ John 21:22
  16. ^ John 21:24–25
  17. ^ Lindars, Edwards & Court 2000, p. 41.
  18. ^ Kelly 2012, p. 115.
  19. ^ Reddish 2011, p. 187–188.
  20. ^ Lincoln 2005, pp. 29–30.
  21. ^ a b c Fredriksen 2008, p. unpaginated.
  22. ^ Valantasis, Bleyle & Haugh 2009, p. 14.
  23. ^ Yu Chui Siang Lau 2010, p. 159.
  24. ^ Menken 1996, p. 11–13.
  25. ^ Eve 2016, p. 135.
  26. ^ Porter & Fay 2018, p. 41.
  27. ^ Lamb 2014, p. 2.
  28. ^ Hurtado 2005, p. 70.
  29. ^ Köstenberger 2006, p. 72.
  30. ^ Lamb 2014, p. 2-3.
  31. ^ Bynum 2012, p. 7,12.
  32. ^ Attridge 2008, p. 125.
  33. ^ a b Moloney 1998, p. 23.
  34. ^ Köstenberger 2015, p. 168.
  35. ^ Bauckham 2008, p. 126.
  36. ^ Aune 2003, p. 245.
  37. ^ Aune 2003, p. 246.
  38. ^ a b Van der Watt 2008, p. 10.
  39. ^ a b Kruse 2004, p. 17.
  40. ^ Orsini, Pasquale, and Willy Clarisse (2012). "Early New Testament Manuscripts and Their Dates: A Critique of Theological Palaeography", in: Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 88/4 (2012), pp. 443-474, p. 470: "...Tab. 1, 𝔓52, 125-175 AD, Orsini–Clarysse..."
  41. ^ Hurtado 2005, pp. 53.
  42. ^ Dunn, James D. G. (2015). Neither Jew nor Greek: A Contested Identity (Christianity in the Making, Volume 3) (in Arabic). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 353. ISBN 978-1-4674-4385-2.
  43. ^ Loke, Andrew. "A Kryptic Model of the Incarnation." Ashgate Publishing, 2014, p. 28–30
  44. ^ Hillar 2012, pp. 132.
  45. ^ Hurtado 2010, pp. 99–110.
  46. ^ Januariy 2013, p. 99.
  47. ^ Januariy, Archimandrite (9 March 2013) [2003]. "The Elements of Triadology in the New Testament". In Stewart, Melville Y. (ed.). The Trinity: East/West Dialogue. Volume 24 of Studies in Philosophy and Religion. Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media (published 2013). p. 100. ISBN 978-94-017-0393-2. Retrieved 21 December 2021. Trinitarian formulas are found in New Testament books such as 1 Peter 1:2; and 2 Cor 13:13. But the formula used by John the mystery-seer is unique. Perhaps it shows John's original adaptation of Paul's dual formula.
  48. ^ John 5:18
  49. ^ Hurtado 2005, p. 51.
  50. ^ Harris 2006, pp. 302–10.
  51. ^ 6:35
  52. ^ 8:12
  53. ^ 10:7
  54. ^ 10:11
  55. ^ 11:25
  56. ^ 14:6
  57. ^ 15:1
  58. ^ Cullmann 1965, p. 11.
  59. ^ John 20:27
  60. ^ Greene 2004, p. p37-.
  61. ^ Dunn 2015, p. 350-351.
  62. ^ Harris 2006, pp. 302–310.
  63. ^ Ronning 2010.
  64. ^ Mark 10:45, Romans 3:25
  65. ^ Mark 8:31, Mark 9:31, Mark 10:33–34 and pars.
  66. ^ John 3:14, John 8:28, John 12:32.
  67. ^ Kysar 2007a, p. 49–54.
  68. ^ Bauckham 2015b, p. 83–84.
  69. ^ Bauckham 2015b, p. 89,94.
  70. ^ a b c d e Bauckham 2015a.
  71. ^ a b Moule 1962, p. 172.
  72. ^ Moule 1962, p. 174.
  73. ^ a b Cross & Livingstone 2005.
  74. ^ Barrett 1978, p. 16.
  75. ^ a b Harris 2006.
  76. ^ Funk 1998, pp. 365–440.
  77. ^ Funk 1998, p. 268.
  78. ^ Olson 1999, p. 36.
  79. ^ Kysar 2005, pp. 88ff.
  80. ^ Brown 1997.
  81. ^ Charlesworth 2010, p. 42.
  82. ^ DeConick 2016, pp. 13-.
  83. ^ Llewelyn, Robinson & Wassell 2018, pp. 14–23.
  84. ^ Most 2005, pp. 121ff.
  85. ^ Skarsaune 2008, pp. 247ff.
  86. ^ Lindars 1990, p. 62.
  87. ^ Brown 1997, p. 375.
  88. ^ Kovacs 1995.
  89. ^ Burge 2014, pp. 236–237.
  90. ^ Köstenberger 2013, p. unpaginated.
  91. ^ a b c d e f Burge 2014, pp. 236–37.
  92. ^ a b Reinhartz 2017, p. 168.
  93. ^ Perkins 1993, p. 109.
  94. ^ Reinhartz 2017, p. 171.
  95. ^ a b c Funk & Hoover 1993, pp. 1–30.
  96. ^ Williamson 2004, p. 265.
  97. ^ Michaels 1971, p. 733.
  98. ^ John 6:42
  99. ^ Fredriksen 2008.
  100. ^ Zanzig 1999, p. 118.
  101. ^ Brown 1988, pp. 25–27.
  102. ^ Pagels 2003.
  103. ^ a b Thompson 2006, p. 184.
  104. ^ Most 2005, p. 80.
  105. ^ Ehrman 2005.
  106. ^ Carson 1991, p. 117.
  107. ^ Moule 1962, pp. 172–74.
  108. ^ Ladd & Hagner 1993, p. 56.
  109. ^ John 16:21
  110. ^ John 12:24
  111. ^ Neusner 2003, p. 8.
  112. ^ Van der Watt 2008, p. 1.
  113. ^ Moloney 1998, p. 4.
  114. ^ a b Watson 2014, p. 112.
  115. ^ Sanders 1995, pp. 57, 70–71.
  116. ^ Theissen & Merz 1998, pp. 36–37.
  117. ^ Brown, Fitzmyer & Murphy 1999, pp. 815, 1274.
  118. ^ Brown 1994.
  119. ^ Charlesworth & Pruszinski 2019, pp. 1–3.
  120. ^ Blomberg 2023, pp. 179ff.


External links

Online translations of the Gospel of John:

Gospel of John
Preceded by New Testament
Books of the Bible
Succeeded by
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