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Sultan of Terengganu

Sultan of Terengganu
سلطان ترڠݢانو
State
Incumbent
Mizan Zainal Abidin
since 15 May 1998
Coronation 4 March 1999
Details
StyleHis Royal Highness
Heir apparentTengku Muhammad Ismail
First monarchZainal Abidin I
Formation1725; 299 years ago (1725)
ResidenceIstana Syarqiyyah, Kuala Terengganu

Sultan of Terengganu (سلطان ترڠݢانو) is the title of the constitutional head of Terengganu state in Malaysia. The current sultan, Mizan Zainal Abidin of Terengganu, is the 18th sultan and 13th Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia from 2006 to 2011. He is the head of Islam in the state and the source of all titles, honours and dignities in the state.

History

Terengganu emerged as an independent sultanate in 1725 with the installation of the first sultan, Zainal Abidin I. In 1741, Sultan Sulaiman appointed Sultan Mansur as the ruler of Terengganu. Popular among his people, Sultan Mansur in the mid-18th century forged a strong alliance among the Malays to counter the growing influence of the Bugis. European accounts of that era lauded the well-organized governance under his leadership.[1]

In 1871, Terengganu became a vassal state of the Thai Rattanakosin Kingdom, and sent tribute every year called bunga mas. This occurred under the reign of Sultan Omar Riayat Shah, who was remembered as a devout ruler who promoted trade and stable government. Under Thai rule, Terengganu prospered, and was largely left alone by the authorities in Bangkok.[2]

Sultan Zainal Abidin III ascended after the death of his father Sultan Ahmad II in 1881. Under his reign Terengganu became a British protectorate via the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909. In 1911, the Sultan issued Terengganu's first constitution. In 1919, a British advisor was appointed to Sultan Muhammad Shah II, the son of the former sultan. Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah was crowned in 1920, his reign saw the growth of Malay nationalism in Terengganu. During the 1920s, growing anti-British sentiment in Terengganu led to uprisings in 1922, 1925 and 1928 which were led by Haji Abdul Rahman Limbong. Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah of Terengganu died on 25 September 1942 of blood poisoning. The Japanese Military Administration, which occupied Malaya at that time, proclaimed his son as the 15th Sultan of Terengganu bearing the title Sultan Ali Shah. In 1943, the Thai government under prime minister Field Marshal Plaek Pibulsonggram took over the administration of Terengganu from the Japanese and continued to recognise Sultan Ali Shah.[3]

When the British returned after the end of World War II, they declined to recognise Sultan Ali Shah. Allegedly, Sultan Ali was in too much in debt and had been too close to the Japanese during their occupation.[4] According to Sultan Ali, the British Military Administration wanted him removed for his refusal to sign the Malayan Union treaty and they also disapproved of his character.[5][6]

On 1945, the Terengganu State Council of thirteen members announced the dismissal of Sultan Ali and the appointment of Tengku Ismail as the 16th Sultan of Terengganu. Tengku Ismail became known as Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah and was installed on 6 June 1949 at Istana Maziah, Kuala Terengganu.[7] Sultan Ali continued to dispute his dismissal until his death on 17 May 1996.[8]

Sultan Mahmud al-Muktafi Billah Shah succeeded his father in 1979 and ruled Terengganu until 1998, when it then passed to his son Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin, who is the current sultan.

List of sultans

The sultan of Terengganu's headgear (Solek Belalai Gajah). Worn by the sultan, this songket is folded like a leaf bud pointing upwards, resembling an elephant tusk from which it takes its name. Its folded in three layers with its point wounded to the right, signifying the wearer is a royal.
  1. 1725–1733: Zainal Abidin Shah I of Terengganu
  2. 1733–1793: Mansur Riayat Shah I of Terengganu
  3. 1793–1808: Zainal Abidin Shah II of Terengganu
  4. 1808–1830: Ahmad Muazzam Shah I of Terengganu
  5. 1830–1831: Abdul Rahman Shah
  6. January – April 1831: Dzaudd Riayat Shah
  7. 1831 (jointly): Omar Riayat Shah and Mansur Shah II
  8. 1831–1837: Mansur Riayat Shah II of Terengganu
  9. 1837–1839: Muhammad Muazzam Shah I
  10. 1839–1876: Omar Riayat Shah
  11. 1876-1877: Mahmud Mustafa Shah
  12. 1877–1881: Ahmad Muazzam Shah II
  13. 1881–1918: Zainal Abidin Shah III
  14. 1918–1920: Muhammad Muazzam Shah II (d; 1955)
  15. 1920–1942: Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah
  16. 1942–1945: Ali Bhadrul Hasshik Alam Shah
  17. 1945–1979: Ismail Nasiruddin Shah
  18. 1979–1998: Mahmud al-Muktafi Billah Shah
  19. 1998–present: Mizan Zainal Abidin

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Andaya, Barbara Watson (1982). A history of Malaysia. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-312-38120-2.
  2. ^ Andaya, Barbara Watson (1982). A history of Malaysia. Martin's Press. p. 121.
  3. ^ Willan, HC (1945) Interviews with the Malay rulers CAB101/69, CAB/HIST/B/4/7
  4. ^ Willan (1945)
  5. ^ Wan Ramli Wan Mohamad (1993) Pengakuan Tengku Ali Mengapa Saya Diturunkan Dari Takhta Terengganu Fajar Bakti, Kuala Lumpur
  6. ^ Willan (1945)
  7. ^ Buyong Adil (1974) p. 205
  8. ^ Wan Ramli Wan Mohamad (1993)
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